Science gives as the most absolute truths. The world is so complex that there are many truths. All of it backed up by resource, experiments and information. These theories describe natural law and give ideas how the universe works.
- The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the universe expanded from a very high density and high temperature state, and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure and Hubble’s Law.
Hubble’s Law of Cosmic Expansion is considered the first observational basis for the expansion of the universe and today serves as one of the pieces of evidence most often cited in support of the Big Bang model. The motion of astronomical objects due solely to this expansion is known as the Hubble flow.
- Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.
- The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci.
- A line segment joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
- The square of the orbital period of a planet is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.
- Universal Law of Gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe using a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres.
- Unlike the Big Bang Theory where the universe began from a singularity, the Ekpyrotic Model of the Universe suggests that the universe arose from the collision of two three-dimensional worlds in space.
- There’s black holes that suck everything in and then there is the White hole theory that supposedly spit everything out. According to some scientists, if white holes exist then they may be linked to black holes in the exact manner we just described.
- Professor Lawrence Krauss once stated that we kill the universe every time we look at dark energy, which, as we know today, makes up 70% of the universe. According to the Dark energy theory, we keep the universe unstable and reduce its lifespan as we continuously observe it
- This Hologram theory suggests that we are not living in an elaborate computer program but that the universe we live in is just a hologram made by the universe itself (aka an anonymous hologram creator)
- In some ways Special relativity was not so revolutionary, because it preserved a lot of classical physics. It merged space with time, matter with energy, made atomic bombs possible and lets you age slower during spaceflight.
- General relativity was much more revolutionary than special relativity, because it ditched Newton’s law of gravity in favor of curved spacetime. And opened scientists’ eyes to the whole history of the expanding universe.
- Quantum theory demolished ordinary notions of the nature of reality, screwed up entire philosophies of cause and effect and revealed peculiarities about nature that nobody, no matter how imaginative, could ever have imagined.
- Theory of everything is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.
- The anthropic principle states that every universe in the multiverse has an infinite range of different properties and physical laws, and that we are here because the universe where we are is hospitable. This theory was eventually dismissed by some as being non-science.
- The seeds of life were brought to earth through meteorites, asteroids, etc Also called the Panspermia Theory, this old belief suggests that life actually exists throughout the universe and that it just ended up on Earth via some sort of space rock.
- According to the Clockwork Universe Theory, the universe is just like a mechanical clock controlled by a supreme being who uses the laws of physics as its gears to make everything in the world determinable. Unlike other scientific theories involving God, this theory limits His role to just setting the universe into motion.
- The Zoo Theory suggests that aliens exist but would never make their presence known to humanity so they cannot exert an influence on human development. This theory suggests that we are like animals being observed in a zoo, being monitored by aliens who would not make contact with us until we reach a certain level of advancement.
- Roko’s basilisk is a proposition that says an all-powerful artificial intelligence from the future may retroactively punish those who did not assist in bringing about its existence.
- Newton’s Laws of Motion is the Law of Inertia, and the Second Law of Motion expresses the relationship between force, mass and acceleration. The Third Law of Motion states that “for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.”
- Laws of Thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium. The laws describe how these quantities behave under various circumstances, and forbid certain phenomena (such as perpetual motion).
Archimedes’ Buoyancy Principle or just Archimedes’ principle states that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and acts in the upward direction at the center of mass of the displaced fluid.
- Natural Selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype. It is a key mechanism of evolution, the change in heritable traits of a population over time. Charles Darwin popularised the term “natural selection”, and compared it with artificial selection.
- Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.
- The Copenhagen Interpretation is an expression of the meaning of quantum mechanics that was largely devised in the years 1925 to 1927 by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. It remains one of the most commonly taught interpretations of quantum mechanics.
- Fiction Theory is a discipline that applies possible world theory to literature. Fiction theory scholars and critics have articulated various theses rooted in Saul Kripke’s application of modal logic to semantics. Drawing on concepts found in possible world theory, theorists of fiction study the relationships between textual worlds and the world outside the text. The overarching idea in fiction theory is that the relationships between the imaginary worlds of fiction and the actual world in which we live are complicated, and that one ought not dismiss fiction as simply stories that are not “true,” .
- The theory of heliocentrism was posited by Copernicus in 1543. Essentially, Copernicus believed that the earth revolved around the sun. The idea was conceived by ancient Greek thinkers, but it took nearly 2,000 years for Copernicus to put their initial thoughts into a theory.
- Chaos Theory is a branch of mathematics focused on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions. ‘Chaos’ is an interdisciplinary theory stating that within the apparent randomness of chaotic complex systems, there are underlying patterns, constant feedback loops, repetition, self-similarity, fractals, self-organization, and reliance on programming at the initial point known as sensitive dependence on initial conditions
- The Germ Theory states that many diseases are caused by microorganisms. These small organisms, too small to see without magnification, invade humans, animals, and other living hosts. Their growth and reproduction within their hosts can cause a disease
- The “Gaia” Theory of a Sustainable Earth proposes that organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.
- The Cell Theory is a scientific theory which describes the properties of cells. These cells are the basic unit of structure in all organisms and also the basic unit of reproduction. With continual improvements made to microscopes over time, magnification technology advanced enough to discover cells in the 17th century.
- The Photon Theory of Light Energy and its speed of light. Photons are emitted when electrons of an atom are vibrated. These photons travel as a transverse wave at 3.00 x 108 m/s. The electrons in the atom are vibrated by the energy of the photon striking them.
Hope all of these theories was interesting and you learnt something.