# Semantic Apparatus – Unstructured and Semi-structured Complex Numbers: A Solution to Division by Zero

## Cited by Lee Sonogan

Abstract by Peter Jean-Paul1, *, Shanaz Wahid1, 2

Most mathematician, have accepted that a constant divided by zero is undefined. However, accepting this situation is an unsatisfactory solution to the problem as division by zero has arisen frequently enough in mathematics and science to warrant some serious consideration. The aim of this paper was to propose and prove the existence of a new number set in which division by zero is well defined. To do this, the paper first uses set theory to develop the idea of unstructured numbers and uses this new number to create a new number set called “Semi-structured Complex Number set” (Ś). It was then shown that a semi-structured complex number is a three-dimensional number which can be represented in the xyz-space with the x-axis being the real axis, the y-axis the imaginary axis and the z-axis the unstructured axis. A unit of rotation p was defined that enabled rotation of a point along the xy-, xz- and yz- planes. The field axioms were then used to show that the set is a “complete ordered field” and hence prove its existence. Examples of how these semi-structured complex numbers are used algebraically are provided. The successful development of this proposed number set has implications not just in the field of mathematics but in other areas of science where division by zero is essential.

Publication: Pure and Applied Mathematics Journal (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

Pub Date: May 8, 2021 Doi: 10.11648/j.pamj.20211002.12

Keywords: Unstructured Numbers, Semi-structured Complex Number, Zero

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