Pragmatic Apparatus – A Bayesian analysis of classical shadows

Cited by Lee Sonogan

Naive Bayes Probabilistic ML - Titanic survival | Kaggle

Abstract by Joseph M. Lukens,Kody J. H. Law &Ryan S. Bennink 

The method of classical shadows proposed by Huang, Kueng, and Preskill heralds remarkable opportunities for quantum estimation with limited measurements. Yet its relationship to established quantum tomographic approaches, particularly those based on likelihood models, remains unclear. In this article, we investigate classical shadows through the lens of Bayesian mean estimation (BME). In direct tests on numerical data, BME is found to attain significantly lower error on average, but classical shadows prove remarkably more accurate in specific situations—such as high-fidelity ground truth states—which are improbable in a fully uniform Hilbert space. We then introduce an observable-oriented pseudo-likelihood that successfully emulates the dimension-independence and state-specific optimality of classical shadows, but within a Bayesian framework that ensures only physical states. Our research reveals how classical shadows effect important departures from conventional thinking in quantum state estimation, as well as the utility of Bayesian methods for uncovering and formalizing statistical assumptions.

Publication: npj Quantum Information (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

Pub Date: 16 July, 2021 Doi:

Keywords: Information theory and computation, Quantum information (Plenty more sections, figures and references in this article)

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