Geology is the science which deals with the physical structure and substance of the earth, their history, and the processes which act on them. The following information will give you answers about questions you have always wondered about the planet and how it changes.
How was the Earth formed? In the beginning scientists belive that about a hundred years ago the Earth, the sun, and all the planets of the solar system were nothing but a cloud of cold dust particles swirling through space.
What is the Earth like inside? The solid rock covering the Earth is called the crust. It is between ten and thirty miles thick. Under the crust is a thick layer of different kinds of rock. It is also known as the Earth’s mantle. Compressed by the Earth’s mantle is the core. It is made up of an inner and outer core. It temperature is about 8000 degrees. Same as the surface of the sun. Earth’s surface to its center averages around 3960 miles.
What causes earthquakes? Most of the time the surface of the Earth is firm and steady. Trembles and shakes loosen up rocks from mountainsides causing fissures capable of much destruction.
How were mountains formed? If you slice a mountain in half you will see the layers of rock are broken and crumbled. In these mountains, it is suggested that they have layers of rock from the sea level. This is proved by people finding sea animal fossils on top of mountains.
What causes volcanos? The solid rock layers which form the Earth’s crust are thinker in some places than in others and directly underneath them. In this places under the crust magma collects in reservoirs or pools. The gases of the magma build up and create much pressure. Then you can guess what happens next. It erupts…
How were seas formed? As the molten rock that formed the surface of the early Earth, it began to cool and gases escaped into the atmosphere that surrounded it. They formed together into great clouds and water vapor. It rained cooling the planet’s crust and then the oceans/seas filled up.
Why is the sea water salty? The rivers that flow across the land carry millions of tons of silt and sediment down to oceans each year. What causes the tides? The gravitational pull of the sun and the moon. Depending where they are positioned in space determines tides coming in and out.
How are rivers formed? Heavy rain falls from the hillsides and drips off the trees to the ground. It collects into little rills or streams that go down slopes. The water follows the contour or outline of the hill and merges together. As the water reaches a valley, perhaps hundreds or thousands of water join together and create a steady stream the new formed river.
What causes floods? Rainfalls may be too heavy for normal river banks. Than it overflows into the surrounding area, sometimes flooding a whole city. Some floods develop slowly, while others such as flash floods, can develop in just a few minutes and without visible signs of rain.
How can a desert be made to bloom? By digging irrigation ditches and bringing water from distance rivers. This has been done successfully for ages making soil fertile in a desert.
What are minerals? A mineral may be defined as any solid element of compound that is made up of chemical substances found in nature. So of the most rarest minerals in the world are Allanite, Apatite, Bastnäsite, Britholite, Brockite, Cerite, fluocerite, fluorite and so much more.
How was oil made? About three million years ago, the great forests died and sunk beneath the swamps. When the swamps dried up, more forests grew on top of that. Beneath the crust the former forests and life under pressure performed a chemical change. Then people found these reservoirs full of thick black liquid we call oil.
How were caves formed? A cave in its beginning is water seeping into the ground between layers of limestone. The limestone dissolves for thousands of years until pathways reveal them self. The wind also helps by pushing out rock, sand and more.
You smarter yet? Hopefully I have answered some of your questions. Where living on this planet so it is probably a good idea to have an understanding of it a little better.