The following contains a process draftsman and draftswomen in how to design and plan for a residential house. A draftsman and is much different then an architect. A draftsmen works for a land company or a architect, mainly for residentual homes. Where a architect can work as a individual or be in charge of many draftsmans. They can design and overlook residentual and commercial structures.
With your clients, discuss what they want in there new home. From how many bedrooms to the backyard area. Then you can estimate an appropriate budget for their intial design. If there budget is less, things can be changed so they can afford it. Then the draftsman will tell the clients the process of the design and give them an estimated time frame. The draftsperson will give it his/hers best effort to stay in communication when necessary. Then start with a preliminary analysis brief.
Survey the land
Site surveying include equipment to gather the correct information. You will need a clipboard, measuring tape, cameras, spirit level, dumpy level and more if needed. The dumpy level is used to get the contour lines of the site. The structure will be designed above these contour lines. Once gotten that information, they will gather all relevent existing information and conditions. You can get some of the information from Dial before you dig or http://www.land.com. You also need to get pictures of land on the sides of the site. With the planing documents, you need to leave room in your designs for the many building and planning codes. A picture can be used to estimate this information.
First you need the equipment. You can hand draw it or create it on a program on a computer. If hand drawn, you will need a mechanical pencil, lead pointers, scale rulers, set squares, erasers, eraser shield and a T-square that is optional. On the plans they will write all text in advance lettering. Also in the drawings there will be different line types and line weights.
Factors to influence your design:
- Existing soil
- Soil type
In 1:50 or 1:100 you would start designing the initial floor plan. All doorways and corridors are commonly 0.9 metres wide. If it’s a two-story structure, use transparent paper and begin the second floor, drawn over the first. In a residential area, it is wise to make a non blockish house. For the fire safety concerns and blocking light and private open areas of people’s homes. Always develop and redefine your ideas for your floor plan. sketches will help you define to concept you are trying to make.
Most councils want a certain amount of plans and documents before you can legally build on the site. Your design must apply to the building codes of your country to have a chance to be passed. The plans they usually want are Shadow plan, overlooking plan, site plan, floor plan and more depending on the council or type of structure. Before sending the documents, you need the clients to sign off on it.
Planning system order:
- Planning and environment act 1987
- State planning policy framework
- Local planning policy framework
- Particular provisions
- General provisions
- Incorporated documents
The council where you live are the deciders if your structure will be built. If successful, it is time to start creating the working documents. They include a cover page, site plan, slab plan, floor plan, roof plan, elevations, Sections, details, schedules and more depending on what type of structure you are designing. Create a 3D model of your design and put it on your front cover page. Make sure all plans have legends to indicate the smaller details of the design.
Before construction, you may need to consult with an energy rater, quantity supervisor, meeting planning and more, depending on the type of structure being built and the requirements for the site and country. Or a engineer who can calculate the roof load. With that information, you will tell if your structure needs a steel beam in its frame or roof. Before starting construction, get the clients to sigh off on it once again for the last time.
You begin with the slab plan. You can use various concrete footings or a concrete slab for the foundation of the house. If using a slab, use slab mesh to strengthen the foundation. If using footings, connect a lower house frame to all the timber poles from the footings. Then begin the walls either out of timber, bricks and more. Commit to the type of wooden framework or brick layout. Then choice the appropriate trusses and connect them to the roof. Then the electronics are ready to be put in.
Depending on what material you use, fill in the exterior walls. Add doors and windows to the framework. Then finish off the roof with many different down pipes. A roof should have many curves for water to fall of it. Then elevations and sections are used to show the details from a different angle. To finish off your document, you will need a door and window schedule.
Construction of the structure
If your application is successful, you will need a building company and building surveyor to start the construction and that agree with your working documents. The draftperson then can show his/hers clients their new home getting built over the next few months.
Some safety laws and policy’s while constructing on a site:
- Occupation health and safety act 2004
- Occupation health and safety regulations 2007
- OH&S codes of compliance